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Art Nouveau
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Sigfried Bing opened a gallery in Paris in December 1895. The name "Art Nouveau" came from the gallery. It is a decorative art that combines the Baroque and Romantic movements, especially concerning to the use curving line. Belgium, France and Spain expressed the curving line primarily as floral. England, Scotland and Germany expressed the curving line as geometric.

Mainly used as a part of architecture or in decoration, the movement also has had great significance for painting and other graphic arts. Toulouse-Lautrec used the curving line extensively, influencing painters like Munch, Hodler and Kokoschka. The British writer John Ruskin developed the ideas that led to Art Nouveau. His ideas were modern, yet influenced by nature. Ruskin influenced various artists in different fields: William Morris (cloths and wallpaper), Arthur Macmurdo (architecture and decoration), and Gustave Serrurier-Bovy (furniture) . Architecture incorporated the movement in the works of architects such as Paul Hankare, Hector Beranger, August Endell and Henry van de Velde. The movement started new interest in drawing, engraving and other forms of artistic expression. In England, Aubrey Beardsley was the champion of Art Nouveau. The glass maker Emile Galle in France taught it at his school in Nancy. Henry van de Velde in Belgium was the hero in the decorative arts. Barcelona spawned such artists as Rusinol, Carbo and Monturiol.

It was predominately centered in Vienna and Munich. Franz von Stuck, Wilhelm Trubner, Max Kingler, Fritz Erler, Leo Putz and Wassily Kandinsky were all devotees of Art Nouveau. Various schools and publications devoted themselves to its ideas. The Art Nouveau influence is still evident today. Floral designs used in wrought iron and furniture that has heart-shaped holes show that influence best.

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