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Stone Lithograph
This printing technique uses a planographic process in which prints are pulled on a special press from a flat stone or metal surface. The surface has been chemically treated so that ink sticks only to the design areas, and is repelled by the non-image areas. Lithography was invented in Germany in 1798. The early history of lithography is dominated by great French artists such as Daumier and Delacroix, and later by Degas, Toulouse-Lautrec, Picasso, Braque and Miro.

Based on the principle that oil and water repel, a Lithograph is created when an artist produces an oil-based or pen image on a stone or piece of metal. This surface is then moistened and covered with an oil-based ink. The resulting chemical reaction between the oil and water drives away the ink on the surface – except where the drawing was first done. Fine quality paper is then placed against the surface and a lithographic press is used to create the print. Modern technology and processes have provided artists with many unique methods with which to create magnificent lithographs. In the 1890s color lithography became enormously popular with French artists, Toulouse-Lautrec most notably of all, and by 1900 the medium in both color and monotone was an accepted part of printmaking, although France and the US have used it more than other countries. George Bellows, Alphonse Mucha, Pablo Picasso, Jasper Johns, David Hockney and Robert Rauschenberg are a few of the artists who have produced most of their prints in the medium.

As a special form of lithography, the Serilith process is sometimes used. Serilith are mixed media original prints created in a process where an artist uses the lithograph and serigraph process. The separations for both processes are hand drawn by the artist. The serilith technique is used primarily to create fine art limited print editions.